CASE Reports

Thinking Beyond the Pandemic: Monetary Policy Challenges in the Medium- to Long-Term

The economic characteristics of the COVID-19 crisis differ from those of previous crises. It is a combination of demand- and supply-side constraints which led to the formation of a monetary overhang that will be unfrozen once the pandemic ends. Monetary policy must take this effect into consideration, along with other pro-inflationary factors, in the post-pandemic era. It must also think in advance about how to avoid a policy trap coming from fiscal dominance.

This paper is organized as follows: Chapter 2 deals with the economic characteristics of the COVID-19 pandemic and its impact on the effectiveness of the monetary policy response measures undertaken. In Chapter 3, we analyse the monetary policy decisions of the ECB (and other major CBs for comparison) and their effectiveness in achieving the declared policy goals in the short term. Chapter 4 is devoted to an analysis of the policy challenges which may be faced by the ECB and other major CBs once the pandemic emergency comes to its end. Chapter 5 contains a summary and the conclusions of our analysis.


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The paper was prepared within the framework service contract which is intended to support the work of ECON in the European Parliament by enabling it to seek independent expert advice in the field of monetary and economic affairs to support its scrutiny activity, in particular in the context of the Monetary Dialogues between ECON with the European Central Bank (ECB). Expertise is requested on a wide range of issues relevant to the work of ECON in relation to EU economic and monetary integration, including governance and institutional aspects, as appropriate.